• PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    Batch Environments

    Batch Environments   The earliest and simplyat operating environment consists only of external files of data. A program takes a set of data files as impact, processes the data and produces a set of output data file. This operating environment is termed as batch – processing because the input data are collected in batches on files and are processed in batches by the program.   Languages each FORTRAN, COBOL and Pascal were initially designed for batch processing environments.   Interactive Environments  

  • PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    Evolution of Software Architecture

    Evolution of Software Architecture The hardware that supports a language has a great impact language design. Language, as a means to solve a problem, is a part of the overall technology that is employed. The external environment supporting the execution of a program is termed its operating or target environment The environment in which the  program ultimately is used. The computing industry has now entered its  third major era in the development of computer programs.Each ers has had a profound effect on the set of languages that were used for applications in each time period. Mainframe Era

  • PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    Development of Early Languages

    Development of Early Languages   We briefly summarize language development during the early days of computing, generally from the mid 1950s to the early 1970s.   Numerically Based Languages: In 1957 John Backus managed to team to develop FORTRAN, FORmula TRANslator. As with the earlier efforts, FORTRAN data were oriented around numerical calculations, but the goal was a full-fledged programming language including control structures, conditionals, and input and output statements. FORTRAN was extremely successful and was the the dominant language through the 1970s. Although FORTRAN was designed for efficient execution, ALGOL(ALGOrithmic Language) had very different goals. ALGOL notation should be close to standard mathematics. ALGOL should be useful for the…

  • PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    General Purpose Processor Architecture

    General Purpose Processor Architecture     Figure       The typical general purpose processor architecture is shown in the figure above.   The operations of the data path are: Load: Read memory location in to register. ALU Operation: Input certain registers through ALU, store back in register. Store: Write register to memory location.   PC- Program Counter IR- Instruction Register CU- Control Unit   The control unit configures the datapath operations as determined by the sequence of desired operations (instructions) stored in memory. This sequence of instructions stored in the memory is called Program.   The execution of each instruction is broken into several sub operation. Each sub operation…

  • PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    Von Neumann Architecture

    Von Neumann Architecture.     Figure       Most computers use the stored program concept designed by John Von Neumann, a Hungarian mathematician. This concept mandates that the programs and data are stored in a slow-to-access storage such as a hard disk. These programs and data are moved to a fast -access volatile storage called RAM. The CPU takes the instructions and data from the RAM.   Von Neumann Architecture computer performs the following sequence of steps:   1. Fetch the next instruction from the RAM at the address in the program counter. 2. Add I to the program counter. 3. Decode the instruction using the control unit. The…

  • PRINCIPALS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE,  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASICS

    What is to be gained, then, by study of a variety of different languages that one is unlikely ever to use?

    Q. What is to be gained, then, by study of a variety of different languages that one is unlikely ever to use? Ans. Six primary reasons come immediately to mind: 1. To improve your link ability to develop effective algorithms: Many languages provide features, that when used properly, are of benefit to the programmer but, when used improperly, may waste large amounts of computer time or lead the programmer into time -consuming logical errors.A typical example is recursion programming feature that, when properly used, allows the direct implementation of elegant and efficient algorithms. When used improperly, it may cause an astronomical increase in execution time. To improve your use of…