Software Evolution.

Q1. Write a note on software evolution.

Ans. A program serves the purpose of commanding the computer. The efficiency and usefulness of a program depends not only on proper use of commands but also on the programming language it is written in. the two major types of programming languages:

  • Low Level Languages
  • High Level Languages

Both of these languages offer different features of programming.

  • Low Level Languages

Low Level languages (that is, machine languages and assembly languages) are machine-oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer circuitry.

Machine language, in which instructions are written in binary code (using 1 and 0), is the only language the computer can execute directly.

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Operating System as a Resource Manager and its General Function on these Resources

Q17. The operating system is called a resource manager. List four distinct resources of the computer system. What are the general functions that the OS performs for these resources?

  1. Memory
  2. CPU
  3. Input/output devices
  4. Programs
  5. Data

The general functions that OS performs are:

For memory it should be effectively used and allocated to the programs asking for it. There should not be any idle memory and a waiting program at the same time.

For CPU – it should be allocated to the job(s) waiting for it so as to minimize its idle time, increase system’s efficiency and meet job’s deadline if any.

For I/O devices – proper device management that is, allocation of I/O channel and device to a job asking for it, in minimum wait time and ensure user free environment.

For PROGRAMS and DATA – proper storage for them. Ensure their protection and avoid any illegal use of them.

CPU Bound Program

Q1. Explain CPU Bound.

Ans. CPU bound programs use their quantum without performing any blocking I/O operation. One could make better use of the computer’s resources by giving higher priority to I/O bound program and allow them to execute ahead of the CPU bound programs.

Differentiate Process and Program

Q1. Differentiate process and program.


Process Program
1. Process is program in execution. 1. Program is a series of instructions to perform a particular task.
2. Process is a part of a program. 2. Program is given as a set of process.
3. Process is the part where logic of that particular program exists. 3. In some cases we may divide a problem into numbers of parts. At these times we write a separate logic for each part known as process.
4. Process is a program in memory. 4. Program is only a set of instructions.
5. In detail you can stay in main memory. 5. Process can be program but program is very ravel a process.
6. The process is an operation which takes the given instructions and performs the manipulations as per the code, called execution of instructions. A process is entirely dependent of a program. 6. A program is a set of instruction that are to perform a designed task.
7. A process is module that executes modules concurrently. They are separate loadable modules. 7. The program perform task directly relating to an operation of a user like word processing executing presentation software etc.


Process Management

Q1. What is Process Management?

Ans. A batch system executes jobs, whereas a time-shared system has user programs, or tasks. Even on a single-user system such as Microsoft Windows, a user may be able to run several programs at one time: a word processor, a web browser, and e-mail package. Even if the user can execute only one program at a time the operating system may need to support its own internal programs activities, such as memory management. In many respects, all these activities are similar, so we call all of them processes.