Volatile Primary Memory and How to overcome the Problems of Volatility

Q15. What is the meaning of the term volatile primary memory? What can be done to overcome the problems of volatility?

Ans. The memory of computer is volatile (temporary), it cannot remember anything after it is switched off.

Since computer’s main memory (primary memory) is temporary, secondary memory space is needed to store data and information permanently for later use. Some most common secondary storage media are floppy diskette, the hard disk and CD-RWs etc.

Components of CPU and its role with function of Control Unit of CPU

Q3. What are the components of CPU? What is its role? What is the function of control unit of CPU?

Ans. The CPU is the control centre for a computer. It guides, directs and governs its performance. It is the brain of the computer. The CPU has two components which are responsible for different functions. These two components are its Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU).

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) carries out arithmetic and logical operations.

Control Unit (CU) controls and guides the interpretation, flow and manipulation of all data and information. Another important function of CU is the program execution that is, carrying out all the instructions stored in the program.

Differentiate Between Input Unit and Output Unit

Q9. Distinguish between Input unit and Output unit.

Ans. The input unit is responsible for taking input and converting it into computer understandable form (the binary code). Since a computer operates on electricity, it can understand only the language of electricity that is, either ON or OFF or high voltage or low voltage. That means a computer can understand two stages ON/OFF or High/Low voltage or the binary language that uses just two symbols: 1 for ON and 0 for OFF.

The output coming from the CPU is in the form of electronic binary signals which needs conversion in some form which can be easily understood by human beings that is, characters, graphical or audio visual. This function of conversion is performed by output units.

Computer Overview – Short Question Answers

Q1. What is a computer?

Q2. Define and distinguish between data and information.

Q3. Briefly explain the significance of Input-Process-Output Cycle.

Q4. Briefly explain the basic architecture of a computer.

Q5. What do you understand by input unit? What is its significance? What does computer input consist of?

Q6. What is the function of CPU in a computer system? What are its subunits?

Q7. What functions are performed by the control unit? Can we call it the control centre of computer system? Why?

Q8. What functions are performed by the ALU? Is it an independent unit? If not, which unit does ALU work in coordination with?

Q9. Distinguish between Input unit and Output unit.

Q10. Distinguish between CPU and ALU.

Q11. What is the function of output unit in a computer system? Give example of some output devices.

Q12. What role does memory play in the functioning of computer system?

Q13. What is a bit? What is binary code?

Q14. Define each of the following:

(a) nibble

(b) byte

(c) kilobyte

(d) megabyte

(e) gigabyte

(f) terabyte.

Q15. What is the meaning of the term volatile primary memory? What can be done to overcome the problems of volatility?

Q16. Distinguish between internal and external memory.

Q17. Draw a block diagram of the main units of a computer hardware system.

Q18. What are the differences between hardware, software and firmware?

Q19. What are the software classifications? Discuss their functioning in brief.

Q20. What is the binary system used in the computers?

Q21. What is the difference between system software and application software?

Q22. How are human compared with respect to speed and capacity of information processing?

Q23. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using computers?

Q24. Explain briefly the major innovations of

(i) first generation computers,

(ii) second generation computers,

(iii) third generation computers,

(iv) fourth generation computers?

Q25. What is the Von Neumann architecture? Did it influence the making of computers? How?

Q26. Describe the stored-program concept and explain how it changed computer processing.

Q27. How are the computers of four different generations superior as compared to their previous models?

Q28. How are computers classified? How are they different from one another?

Q29. How is the microcomputer different from the other computers?

Q30. What are the four different types of computers based on their working methods?

Q31. Identify and discuss characteristics and uses of

(a) Minicomputers

(b) Mainframe computers, and

(c) Supercomputers.

Q32. Compare microcomputers with minicomputers and mainframe in terms of size, cost and capabilities.

Q33. List at least three advantages of computer data processing over manual methods.

Q34. What do you understand by the term ‘Super Computers’? Give the name of a supercomputer installed in India.

Q35. How are digital, analog and hybrid computers different from one another?