Basic Concepts of OOP.

Q3. Explain the basic concepts of OOP with examples.

Ans. The object oriented programming has been developed with the view to overcome the drawbacks of traditional programming approaches. The OOP approach is based on certain concepts that helps it attain goal of overcoming the drawbacks or shortcomings of traditional programming approaches. These general concepts of OOP are given below:

  1. Data Abstraction
  2. Data Encapsulation
  3. Modularity
  4. Inheritance
  5. Polymorphism

 

  1. Data Abstraction:

Abstraction is the concept of simplifying a real world concept into its essential elements.

Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential features without including the background details or explanations.

Let’s take the example of ‘switch board’. You only press certain switches according to your requirement. What is happening inside, how it is happening etc. you needn’t know. This is abstraction, you know only the essential things to operate on switch board without knowing the background details of switch board.

  1. Encapsulation:

Encapsulation is the most fundamental concept of OOP. It is the way of combining both data and the functions that operate on that data under a single unit.

         Read More …

Informatics Practices – By Sumita Arora Solutions for Class XI

Informatics Practices – By Sumita Arora Solutions for Class XI

  1. Hardware Concepts.
    1. SOLVED QUESTIONS.
    2. VERY SHORT QUESTIONS.
    3. SHORT QUESTIONS.
  2. Software Concepts.
    1. SOLVED QUESTIONS.
    2. VERY SHORT QUESTIONS.
    3. SHORT QUESTIONS.
    4. LONG QUESTIONS.
  3. Getting Started With Programming using IDE.
    1. SOLVED QUESTIONS.
  4. Programming Fundamentals.
  5. Flow Of Control.
    • Programming Questions.
    • Theory Questions.

Chocolate Sauce Recipe

Chocolate Sauce Recipe

Chocolate Sauce

Ingredients

  1. ½ cup unsweetened coco powder
  2. ¾ cup sugar
  3. ½ cup water
  4. 2 tbsp butter
  5. ½ tsp vanilla essence

Recipe

  1. Mix together unsweetened coco powder, sugar and water.
  2. Bring it to a boil and further cook till it thickens.
  3. Add butter and mix well.
  4. Continue to cook for 2 more minutes.
  5. Stir in the essence.

Tips

  1. You can use it to top your vanilla ice cream or your chocolate cake.

Computer Science With C++ – By Sumita Arora Solutions for Class XI

Computer Science With C++ – By Sumita Arora Solutions for Class XI

1. Computer Overview

 

2. Working with Operating System

Microwave Egg less Chocolate Cake In 5 Minutes

Microwave Egg less Chocolate Cake In 5 Minutes

Cake

Ingredients

  1. 1 cup whole milk
  2. 1 cup sugar
  3. 1 ½ cup all purpose flour (maida)
  4. 3 tbsp cocoa powder
  5. 1/2 tsp baking powder
  6. 1/4 tsp baking soda
  7. 1 tbsp lemon juice (nimbu ka raas)
  8. 1/2 tsp vanilla extract
  9. 3 tbsp oil

Recipe

  1. Mix milk and sugar until sugar is completely dissolved.
  2. Sieve all purpose flour (maida), cocoa powder, baking powder, baking soda in milk and sugar mixture.
  3. Add vanilla extract and oil to the above mixture.
  4. Add lemon juice (nimbu ka raas) and mix it well.
  5. Grease a microwave save dish with oil and pour the batter in it.
  6. Microwave it for 5 minutes at high power.
  7. Insert a toothpick in the center of cake, if it comes out clear, the cake is ready.
  8. Let it cool down for 5 minutes and then take it out on a plate.
  9. Serve the cake with vanilla ice cream or chocolate sauce.

Tips

  1. Milk should be at room temperature.
  2. To avoid lamps try to stir all the ingredients in one direction.
  3. Don’t play much with the batter after adding lemon juice (nimbu ka raas).
  4. Don’t fill the batter till the brim otherwise the cake may overflow from the dish.
  5. Power setting for each microwave differs so cook cake as per your own judgment. If after 5 minutes, cake is not cooked, allow it to cook for another 1 or 2 minute in microwave.

Homemade Chocolate Recipe

“Homemade Chocolate Recipe”

Homemade Chocolate

 

Ingredients

  1. 5 tbsp coco powder
  2. 1 ¼ cup milk powder
  3. ¼ cup butter (makaan)
  4. 2/3 cup sugar (cini)
  5. ½ cup water (paani)

Recipe

  1. Heat water and sugar in a pan and bring it to a boil. Reduce flames and continue cooking till you reach one string consistency.
  2. Add butter (makaan) and mix well till it melts. Turn off heat.
  3. Add coco powder and milk powder into the mixture (a few tbsp at a time) and mix it well until it’s smooth.
  4. Grease a plate or pan and pour the mixture into it. Smooth out the top of it and let it rest for 10 to 15 minutes at room temperature.
  5. Place it in fridge for 10-15 minutes. Now cut it in your desired shape.

Tips

  1. To avoid lamps sieve coco powder and milk powder before use.
  2. To check for one string consistency of sugar syrup – allow the sugar to dissolve in water. Continue to cook the syrup on low flame. When you touch the syrup between your forefinger and thumb, a thin string will form and it should not break. If it breaks, the syrup should simmer for a little while longer.
  3. You can add crushed nuts of your choice
  4. You can add 1/2 tsp of vanilla essence at the time of adding butter. Alternately, 2 tsp of strong coffee mixture can be added.’
  5. You can use ice tray as your mold and can get chocolate in the shape of ice cubes.

 

Lemon Rice Recipe

Lemon Rice Recipe

Lemon Rice Recipe

Ingredients

  1. 1 cups cooked or steamed basmati rice (chawal)
  2. 2 tbsp lemon juice (nimbu ka ras)
  3. 1 tsp mustard seeds (rai)
  4. 1 tsp soaked or boiled chickpea dal (chana dal)
  5. a pinch of asafetida (hing)
  6. ½ tsp turmeric powder (haldi)
  7. 2 to 3 tbsp vegetable oil
  8. Regular salt (namak) as required
  9. 5-6 fresh or dry mint leaves(pudina leaves) or fresh coriander leaves (dhania leaves) for garnishing

Recipe

  1. In a small frying pan put oil and add mustard seeds, let them crackle.
  2. Drain water from chana dal/chickpea dal and add it to frying pan, fry them for 12-15 seconds.
  3. Add the asafetida (hing) and turmeric powder, fry them for 2-3 seconds.
  4. Fry everything on a low flame, so that the spics don’t burn.
  5. Switch off the fire and add the lemon juice along with salt.
  6. Stir and immediately pour this mixture on the rice.
  7. Mix it well.
  8. Keep the lemon rice covered for the flavors to blend for 4-5 minutes.
  9. Garnish the dish with crashed dry mint leaves (pudina leaves) or freshly shopped coriander leaves (dhania leaves).
  10. Then serve the lemon rice with papads and coconut chutney or just have lemon rice.