Differentiate between hackers and crackers with the reference to their intention and motive.

Q11. Answer the following questions:

  1. Shreenivasan is working for an IT firm where he needs to take a backup of his data of around 200MB to 400MB at the end of each day. The backup he takes everyday needs to be achieved separately for future reference. Suggest any two economic data backup devices, which he can use for this purpose.
  2. Differentiate between hackers and crackers with the reference to their intention and motive.
  3. Name one specific software/ tool for each of the following categories:

1. Anti-virus software
2. Data recovery tool
3. Online backup tool
4. Text editor to create HTML pages
5.Open Source web browser

  1. CD and DVD
  2. Hacker is a slang term for a person who is passionate about computers, one who enjoys gathering any type of information about computers and programming languages. The term is sometimes used derogatorily to mean a person who uses this knowledge to break into a computer to steal sensitive information. In simple word, hackers are people who break into a computer with no malicious intention. On the other side, crackers are the people who gain unauthorized access to a computer with the intention of stealing information or causing harm to the computer by destroying its software. However, the popular mass media finds no distinction between the two terms and uses them interchangeably.


1. Anti-virus software: Vipre
2. Data recovery tool: NTFS-reader
3. Online backup tool: Dropbox
4. Text editor to create HTML pages: Notepad2
5.Open Source web browser: Mozilla Firefox

What does it mean when we say that XML tags are case-sensitive.

Q18. What does it mean when we say that XML tags are case-sensitive?

Ans. The case-sensitivity of XML tags means the opening and closing tags must be in the same case. The following code snippet is an example of a well-formed document, where the opening and closing are in the same case:
<FirstName> Ambrish</FirstName>

Compare XML with HTML.

Q17. Compare XML with HTML with respect to the following two points:

  1. Document structure
  2. Tags


  1. Document Structure: The data of both XML and HTML documents are represented in a tree-like structure. However, in the case of XML documents or data, the structure is defined by DTD or schemas. This ensures that the data is organized according to DTD rules. HTML does not have such facility to define the data and document structure.
  2. Tags: Tags are used in both XML and HTML. However, there is one main difference between the two. HTML provides a set of predefined tags, which means that the user cannot extend tag capability in HTML. In other words, the user cannot create his/her own tags. However, in the case of XML, the user can create his/her own tags and use them according to his/her requirements.

Advantages of XML.

Q16. What are the advantages of XML?

Ans.  The advantages of XML are as follows:

  1. Stores data in plain text, therefore you do not need any special knowledge to understand the XML data.
  2. Provides a basic syntax that can be used to share information among different applications.
  3. XML is completely compatible with Java. In addition, it is fully portable to the extent that it can be used on large networks with multiple platforms, such as the Internet, and on palmtops.
  4. Allows the user to create tags according to his/her requirements.
  5. XML is a platform-independent language. Read More …

What is CSS.

Q15. What is CSS?
CSS is a text document (or style-sheet) that is commonly used to define the style and layout of an XML document, such as font size, font color, line width, and background color. The same CSS document can be used in multiple XML documents. The CSS document, which has the .css extension, contains the style code for the structure, such as heading, paragraphs, and links, of the XML document.

Write the procedure to link a style-sheet with an XML document.

Q14. Write the procedure to link a style-sheet with an XML document.

Ans. To link a CSS style-sheet with an XML document, we need to use the PI statement in the XML document.

We need to perform the following steps to link a style-sheet with an XML document:

  1. Create an XML document and save it as a file with the .xml extension.
  2. Create a style-sheet and save it as a file with the .css extension. Read More …

Changing color in XML table.

Q13. Consider the table shown in Question 12 and create a style-sheet for it, prescribing the color for Book_Name, Author and Price as red, green, and blue respectively. In addition, the font attribute is in bold style.



{ color:Red;

font-weight:bold; }


{ color:Green;

font-weight:bold; }


{ color:Blue;

font-weight:bold; }

Create an XML document to represent a message sent.

Q11. Create an XML document to represent a message sent on August 6, 2011 to Raju and Reena by Harmeet. The message is Welcome to Kogent PV.LTD>


<?xml version=”1.0”>

<Message date=”8/6/2011”>






<BODY> Welcome to Kogent Pvt.Ltd </Body>


Create XML document shown in table.

Q12. Create an XML document containing the information shown in the following table:

Book_Name Author Price
.NET Vikash Rs 500/-
Core JAVA Martin Rs 750/-
Basic Grammer Saroj Rs 250/-


<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=”UTF-8” standalone=”yes”?>


<book> Read More …