Operating System is called a Resource Manager

Q18. The operating system is called a resource manager. List four distinct resources of the computer system. What are the general functions that the OS perform for these resources?

Ans. An operating system is an important component of a computer system which controls all other components of the computer system. Major components of a computer system are:

  1. The Hardware
  2. The Operating System
  3. The Application program routines (compiler, linker, database management systems, utility programs)
  4. The Humanware (users)

Where hardware provides the basic computing resources, the application program routines define the ways in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users and the Operating System  controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users.

Concept of Virtual Storage

Q17. Explain the concept of virtual storage.

Ans. A program can be stored at non contiguous locations, suppose even if we use all available free memory areas still the program cannot be loaded into the main storage because the total free memory is still less than the size of the program. To solve such a problem, we require a technique with which a program can still be executed even if all of it is not loaded in the memory. Virtual storage helps one perform such an execution. Two main approaches to virtual storage are

  • program-paging
  • program-segmentation

Functions Performed By An Operating System As Memory Manager

Q16. Explain briefly the functions performed by an operating system as memory manager?

Ans. In the working of a modern computer system, memory plays a central role. Both CPU and Input/output system interact with memory. Memory is a large array of words or bytes, each with its own address. The CPU reads from and writes to specific memory addresses.

 

Memory Plays a central role in Computer System
Memory plays a central role in Computer System

 

A program must be assigned some memory area and loaded into memory in order to be executed. As the program executes, it accesses program instructions and data from memory by generating addresses of the allocated memory. When the program terminates, its memory space is declared free, and the next program may be given the same memory area. There can be many user programs loaded in the memory along with system programs and operating system.

 

 

Functions Performed By An Operating System As Processor Manager

Q15.Explain briefly the functions performed by an operating system as processor manager?

Ans. As the name itself suggests, Processor Management means managing the process or processor that is, the CPU. Therefore, this very function is also termed as CPU Scheduling.

Multiprogramming, undoubtedly, improves the overall efficiency of the computer system by getting more work done in less time as the CPU may be shared among a number of active programs which are present in the memory at the same time. While CPU is executing a job, it has to wait for the job; if the job requires certain Input/output operation, the CPU waits for the Input/output operation to get over and that wait time is CPU’s idle time. In place of making CPU sit idle, another job takes over the use of CPU, increasing efficiency thereby and reducing CPU idle time.

The benefits of multiprogramming are as follow:

  • Increased CPU utilization
  • Higher total job throughput

Concept of Process

Q14. Clearly define the concept of a process. Can different functions/subroutine of an HLL program be called processes?

Ans. Process is a program in execution. Job and Process are the terms which are almost used interchangeably.

Yes, different functions/subroutine of an HLL program can be called processes when they are in execution.

Type of Services Provided by An Operating System

Q13. What types of services are provided by an operating system?

Ans. Some common services provided by operating system can be listed as follow:

(i) Program Execution

(ii) Handling Input/output Operations

(iii) Manipulation of File System

(iv) Error Detection and Handling

(v) Resource Allocation

(vi) Accounting

(vii) Information and Resource Protection

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Procedure To Create a New Folder and Shutting Down Windows

Q12. (i) Give procedure to create a new folder in Windows XP.

         (ii) Give procedure for closing down the Windows XP.

Ans.(i). To create a new folder

  1. Double-click My Computer, and then double-click the disk drive or folder in which you want to place the new folder.
  2. Click on File-> New, and then click Folder.
  3. Type the name of the new folder, and then press ENTER. The new folder appears in location you selected.

 

Ans.(ii). To shut down your computer,

  1. Click the Start button, and then click Shut Down. The Shut Down Windows dialog box pop up.
  2. Click at Shut Down radio button and click OK. (To restart your computer, click at Restart radio button and click OK).

Some Advance Features of Windows XP

Q11. Discuss some advance features of Windows XP.

Ans. Windows XP has got some very useful features that add to its user-friendliness. A few of them are as follow:

  1. The Desktop:

In Windows Operating System, the screen upon which icons, Windows, etc. are displayed is known as desktop. The Windows Operating System desktop may contain a background, one or more active or inactive windows, a task bar, and icons. A background can be anything from a single-color screen to an elaborate artistic image. All windows and icons are superimposed on the background, whether it may be.

  1. The Window:

A window is a typical rectangular area pertaining to an application or a document or a dialog.

Following are the types of windows:

(i) The Application Window

(ii) The Document Window

 

The Application Window

An application window contains an open application that is, a running application such as Word or Paint. Several applications can be open or running simultaneously, but there is only one active window at any given time.

 

An application window has many elements: the title bar, the menu bar, the workspace, the scroll bar, and the corners and borders. Each of these are as follow:

  • The Application Icon

It is the icon representing the open application. When you click at application icon, a pull-down control menu appears which is also called system menu. Control menu options vary, depending upon the type of application being displayed in the window.

  • Maximize/Restore

This button is used to restore an enlarged window to its previous size or vice versa.

  • Minimize

This button shrinks the active window to a button in the taskbar.

  • Close

Choosing this button deactivates the active window from the desktop.

  • Window Title and Active File Name

Along with the title of the application, title bar also contains the name of file displayed in the application workspace.

 

The Menu Bar

The menu bar for an application window is a horizontal bar just below the title bar. The menu bar lists the menus available for that application. Choosing an option from the menu bar results in a pull-down menu.

 

The Workspace

This is the area in a window below the title bar and menu bar. Everything that relates to the current application is displayed in the workspace.

 

The Scroll Bars

Depending on the size of a window, the entire application may not be visible. When this happens, the window is outfitted with Vertical and/or Horizontal Scroll bars. Each scroll bar contains a scroll box and two scroll arrows (one up and one down). Keyboard movement keys or mouse can be used to move scroll box up/down or left/right on a scroll bar to display other parts of the application.

 

Corners and Borders

To resize a window, use the mouse and point to a window’s border or corner. The mouse cursor changes to a double arrow when positioned over a border or corner. Drag the border or corner in the direction indicated by the double arrow to the desired shape.

 

(ii) The Document Window

The document windows are the windows within an application window. These are displayed in the parent application window’s workspace.

 

  1. The Icons

As you know, icons are the pretty pictures representing Windows elements like files, folders, shortcuts etc. Icons play a very important role in graphical user interfaces. Commonly used icons are: application icons, shortcut icons, document icons, and disk-drive icons. These are:

 

(i) Application Icons

These are the graphic renderings of the software package’s logo. If you double click over this icon, the related application gets invoked.

 

(ii) Shortcut Icons

These are little graphics pointing to a particular application, document or folder etc. By double clicking over them the concerned application/document/folder etc. becomes active.

 

(iii) Document Icons

The active document window, which is a window within an application window, can be minimized to a document icon. Point and double-click on the document icon to restore the document window.

 

(iv) Disk-drive Icons

The disk-drive icons graphically represent five disk-drive options: floppy disk, hard-disk, network, RAM, and CD-ROM. The floppy disk (A:), hard disk (C:) and CD-ROM (D:) icons resemble the faceplates of disk drives. Typically, PCs have only one or two floppy drives, assigned to A and B.

 

Start Group

Q10. What is the Start Group? What are the different functions that can be done through this?

Ans. If you regularly use photo-editing software developed by different companies, for instance, you can group these applications together in one place on the Start Menu for easy access. Groups are folders into which you can drag existing application shortcuts.

Windows Explorer

Q9. What is Windows Explorer? Give some of its functions?

Ans. Another way of seeing what’s on your computer is to use Windows Explorer. Opening Windows Explorer gives you a view of your computer’s contents as a hierarchy, or “tree”. You can easily see the contents of each drive and folder on your computer, as well as of any network drives you are connected to.